The State Castle and Chateau Český Krumlov
Building of the Little Castle with attached Castle Tower is the oldest part of Krumlov´s Castle. The castle which bore the name Krumlov was founded in the middle of the 13th century (between 1291 - 1308) on the rock cliffs rising above the meandering Vltava riverbed by the Lords of Krumlov. Due to the expansion of the Upper Castle as a residence, the Little Castle became only a part of the fortification and storage space. Today´s appearance of the Little Castle is Rennaissance in style and comes to us from the late 16th century when the Krumlov Castle was reconstructed into a Rennaissance residence. In 1591 the Little Castle and tower were richly decorated with mural paintings and figural and arcitectural motifs by Bartoloměj Beránek - Jelínek but the Little Castle was still in use as a storehouse. There was a residence and office of the steward of the household around the beginning of the 18th century. In the 19th century there were offices and residence of the director of the domain. In 1947 the Krumlov Castle was nationalised by a special law of the National Assembly and in 1950 the Little Castle was converted into flats.
The Little Castle with a tower is the main view point of the town of Český Krumlov for its dominant location and outstanding painting decoration.
The new history of the Little Castle started in 1990´s. In 1992 the town and Český Krumlov Castle were added to the UNESCO list of cultural and natural heritage. The paintings of the Little Castle and tower were renovated after 1993.
Financial resources for the Project of the Castle Museum in Český Krumlov were obtained from EEA Grants and Norway Grants in 2008. Since 2009 the National Heritage Institute is prepairing a unique project of the new Castle Museum in Český Krumlov. The Castle Museum starts its operation during the month of January 2011.
EXPOSITION OF THE CASTLE MUSEUM
The exhibit is in the style of historical 19th century museum. The interiors are furnished with historical lights, restored Dutch stoves and replicas of old museum exhibition boxes.
A. GROUND FLOOR
A.00. Lapidarium The word "lapidarium" was inspired by the Latin "lapis" (ganetive lapidis) which means the stone. The modern term lapidarium is used for places where are stored various stone statues and architectural fragments from the Middle Ages and modern period. The most important exhibit of this exposition is the copy of the Rosenberg tomb stone made out of red marble. The original tomb stone is built into the northern wall of the presbytery of the Church of the Ascension of the Virgin Mary in the Vyšší Brod Monastery.
B. FIRST FLOOR
The actual museum exhibit is located on the first floor.
B.01. Hall of the Lords of Rose The Hall of the Lords of Rose reminds of two branches of the Witigos - the Lords of Krumlov, who founded the local noble residence in the 13th century, and the Rosenbergs, who were the owners of the castle from 1302 to 1602.
Painting “Division of the Roses“ depicts the beginnings of the Witigos (Anton Streer, 1742). The founder of the dynasty, Witigo of Prčice, called the “Father of the Roses”, divided his manor between his sons who wore differently coloured roses on their shields. A green rose, the escutcheon of the founders of Český Krumlov, is missing in the painting. The appearance of the Krumlov castle in the 16th century is depicted in the middle of the scenery.
Codex Manesse from the beginning of the 14th century depicting the Czech King Wenceslaus II (facsimile, 1925-1927). The King Wenceslaus II (1271 – 1305) grew up under the influence of his stepfather, a member of the Witigos from Krumlov, Zawish von Falkenstein. In 1920 he ordered the execution of Zawish. After the extinction of the Witigos of Krumlov, Wenceslaus II handed over the Krumlov Castle in 1302 to another branch of the dynasty, the Rosenberg dynasty with an escutcheon bearing a red rose.
Panel painting of the Nativity by Master of the Vyší Brod Altar from the middle of the 14th century. The person who ordered this piece, presumably Peter I. of Rosenberg (†1347), was painted with the Rosenberg escutcheon in the right bottom corner. (Copy) Peter I. of Rosenberg served as the highest valet at the court of Jan of Luxembourg where he was one of the most influential aristocrats in the country. At the same time he was also the most richest aristocrat in the country. Peter tried to gain a glory equal to the royal court, even marrying the widow of the Czech king Václav III. (Wenceslas III.), Viola Těšínská. Peter I. of Rosenberg was the sovereign reponsible for giving the castle and town its original 14th century appearance.
The first edition of the Nürnberg World Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel of 1493. On the right page, Schedel’s chronicle briefly describes the capture of Wenceslaus IV, the Czech and Roman-German King, who is also depicted on the right edge of the book under the heading “Wentzlaw“. Particularly Heinrich III of Rosenberg (†1412), who imprisoned his King in the Český Krumlov Castle twice in 1394 and 1402, among others, participated in the capture of Wenceslas.
Ulrich of Rosenberg (1403 – 1462) forged a deed that acknowledged the privilege of the members of the Rosenberg dynasty to inherit each other’s property. This forgery protected the dynasty property from being divided among a number of relatives and also placed “the Rosenberg King“ among the richest noblemen in the Kingdom. (Facsimile.).
Wilhelm of Rosenberg was developing a fictive story about his relationship to the Italian noble dynasty of Orsini and adopted their escutcheon in the middle of the 16th century. (Wall painting reproduction from the 19th century.) Wilhelm of Rosenberg was one of the most significant figures of Czech history from the late 16th century. From 1570 he was the highest Burgrave of Prague (the function of highest Burgrave is comparable to today´s position of Ministry Chairman). From 1573 till 1575 he led negotiations concerning the occupation of the Polish crown on behalf of the Habsburgs. He was offered the crown on his own behalf, but he could not accept the candidacy due to political reasons. He was also a knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece from 1585.
Peter Wok of Rosenberg (1539-1611). The last member of the dynasty sold Český Krumlov to the Emperor Rudolph II (copy of the painting).In contrast to his older brother Wilhelm, he was not engaged in public affairs to such an extent, even though we was an educated and skilful politician. His seat in Třeboň, for example, became the center of negotiations in the opposition movement of the estates against the Habsburgs in 1609, when the famous Imperial Charter of Religious Freedom was issued by Rudolf II. Peter Vok was named the Honourable Chairman of the revolutionary government in return. He was mostly interested in art, literature, and collecting – in his time he owned the largest library in Bohemia, numbering almost 11,000 volumes. Because of debts that he inherited from his brother, mostly due to the high expenses involved in representation, he had to sign a contract in 1601 selling Český Krumlov to the Habsburg Emperor Rudolf II.
Session of the Provincial Court of the Czech Kingdom at the Prague Castle in 1593. A member of the Rosenberg dynasty had the right to sit at the most honourable place to the right hand of the king. Although the then head of the dynasty did not attend the depicted session, the Rosenberg coat of arms is painted in his place next to the throne. (Oil on canvas, end of the 16th century).
B.02. Hall of the Dukes of Krumlov The Habsbourgs, who bought Český Krumlov from the last Rosenberg in 1602, were the owners of the castle for only two decades. In 1622, the Emperor Ferdinand II. gave the local manor to the Styria noble family of Eggenbergs. The Eggenbergs died out in 1719 and Krumlov was passed on to the Schwarzenbergs. From 1628 the owners of the vast dominion boasted the title of the Dukes of Krumlov.
Johan Ulrich of Eggenberg (1568 - 1634) acquired the Krumlov manor in 1622. Prince Johann Ulrich received Český Krumlov in return for his financial assistance to the Emperor Ferdinand II. as well as for his participation in the Thirty Years´War and the Battle on White Mountain. He was elevated to the status of Prince with title of Duke in 1628.
Diploma of the Emperor Ferdinand II of 1628, by which the Krumlov dominion was promoted to a principality with the ducal title. This document entitled the owner of the manor, a member of the Eggenberg dynasty, to use the title of the Duke of Krumlov. In the years 1634-1786, the Český Krumlov dominion was the only manor in Bohemia and Moravia, to which the ducal title was bound. (Facsimile.)
The third Duke of Krumlov, Johann Christian of Eggenberg (1641-1710) and his wife Maria Ernestina of Schwarzenberg restored the glory of the abandoned Rosenberg residence in Český Krumlov that he rebuilt in Baroque style. Around the early 1670's the Krumlov castle became the site of ambitious building activity which affected the castle from the 1st courtyard all the way up to the castle gardens. From 1673-1675 the large castle halls were reconstructed and the roofs of the upper Castle were made level. In 1682, on the project of Jakub de Maggi and Petr Spinetta, a new theatre building was finished on the 5th castle courtyard.
Maria Ernestina of Schwarzenberg (1649-1719), the wife of Johann Christian of Eggenberg, as a passionate reader greatly enriched the castle library. Johann Christian and Maria Ernestina, born Countess of Schwarzenberg, had no children and that is why the heritage of the Eggenbergs, the Krumlov estates, was thus passed on to the nephew of Maria Ernestina after her death in 1719, Prince Adam Franz of Schwarzenberg.
Arms of the Styria noble family of Eggenbergs.Five red roses of Rosenberg are the symbol of the Duchy of Krumlov. In 1710, the coat of arms was depicted on the funeral flag of Johann Christian of Eggenberg.
Genealogical tree of the Schwarzenbergs (1688-1689), originally from Franconia in Germany. In the middle of the 17th century, the Schwarzenbergs settled in Bohemia.
Adam Franz of Schwarzenberg (1680-1732). When he took over the Krumlov manor in 1719, he became the holder of the largest manor in Bohemia. Adam Franz was in the Emperor´s service and gained the Order of Golden Fleece in 1712. He also became the first Duke of Krumlov when the Krumlov domain was elevated to a princedom with the title of Duke in 1723. He ranked among the most important persons of the Schwarzenberg family and supported the arts and science. Important architects, sculptors and artists worked at his domain. Adam Franz also bought paintings and extended the library.
Diploma of the Emperor Charles VI in the form of a book from 1723. By this document, the Emperor renewed the title of the Duke of Krumlov for the subsequent owners of the manor after the extinction of the Eggenbergs. (Facsimile).
Joseph I. Adam of Schwarzenberg (1722-1782) as a child with the Order of the Golden Fleece (1732). Prince Joseph Adam was just ten years old, when the Emperor Charles VI. shot his father Adam Franz at a deer hunt near Brandýs nad Labem. After the death of Adam Franz his wife Countess Eleonora Amalie took the guardian reign over the Schwarzenberg possession and the Emperor himself reserved protection over the young prince.
Joseph I. Adam of Schwarzenberg (1722-1782) - adult portrait. Prince Joseph Adam initiated expensive reconstructions of the Krumlov Castle in Rococo style. Joseph Adam began his construction activities by building the winter riding hall in 1744. The Upper Castle buildings were vertically aligned in 1748 - 1749, the originally Gothic St. George´s Chapel got its new appearance in 1748, followed by the Masquerade Hall in 1748. After completing the works in the Castle Garden dominated by Cascade Fountain and Summerhouse Bellaria (1755 - 1757) the Prince had the old Eggenberg Theatre building pulled down and built a new building in 1765 - 1766. When the Baroque Theatre was finished it was connected with the Castle building by a corridor leading over the Cloak Bridge. That market the end of the historic development of the Castle.
Pauline Charlotte of Arenberg (1774-1810), the wife of Joseph II. Johann Nepomuk of Schwarzenberg. Princess Pauline tragically died at the age of 36 in the fire at a ball which was held in Paris in 1810 on the occasion of Napoleon’s wedding. The tragical ball in Paris was given on 1st July 1810 by her brother-in-law, Austrian ambasador Prince Charles I. Philip of Schwarzenberg.
B.03.Manor administration office In 1719 Český Krumlov became not only the residential town of the Schwarzenbergs, but mainly the main administration centre of the family dominion. The highest number of economic officers out of all Schwarzenberg manors worked here. Even when the princely family moved its main place of residence to Hluboká in 1848, the Krumlov Castle kept its character of an administration centre in a certain way for more than another 100 years.
The exposition of the office was furnished with authentic furniture according to historic photographs.
Johann Adolph II of Schwarzenberg (1799-1888) was forced, after the abolition of serfdom in the middle of the 19th century, to adapt the administration of the large manor to the new conditions. In 1848, he moved the main family residence to the newly rebuilt Hluboká Chateau, which relegated the Krumlov residence to the role of a historical, but only rarely visited museum.
Adolph Joseph of Schwarzenberg (1832–1914). Member of the Czech Parliament and the Imperial Council representing the towns of the Prachatice region. Adolph Joseph initiated restorations of the Krumlov Castle.
Johann II Nepomuk of Schwarzenberg (1860-1938), as well as other family members, financially supported humanitarian organizations, scientific and cultural associations.
B.04. Office of the Director of the manor In the 19th century, the apartment of the director of the manor administration offices were located in these rooms. This leads us to the theme of the second part of the exhibition which attepmts to at least outline the living style of bourgeois families in the second half of the 19th century and in the exhibition cases items that were surrounding them are displayed.
The office of the director is equipped sumptuously compared to the previous administrative workers (clerks) and represents the high position of its owner. Besides items that usually appeared in the offices of that time, also gentlemen´s personal items are exhibited, including gifts that the Prince received from his subordinates.
B.05. Salon The salon served for hosting guests, for an afternoon snack or a glass of liquor or digestif after dinner. It was equipped mainly with comfortable sitting furniture – sofa for two to three people, armchairs, a coffee table, other small tables and one or two display cases. In one of the display cases, the lady of the house used to store “family treasures“. Solitaires made of glass, porcelain, ivory, pearls or precious materials, souvenirs from travel, rarities, first hair of their children stored in a medallion, first teeth of the children adjusted by a goldsmith, rosary beads of their mothers, pipes of their fathers etc.
The other display case served for the storing of coffee and tea sets, small cups for chocolate, dessert plates, bowls, glasses and carafas for liquor and digestif. Also spoons, forks, dessert knifes, scoops, tongs and other necessary cutlery which was decorated for these purposes.
B.06. Bedroom The character of the burgess houses was based mainly on the needs of families which used to be quite large. In the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century it was quite usual - in contrast to today´s situation - for a Central European family to have 7 - 12 members. Therefore, the apartments used to be large. They consisted of a bedroom for the parents, a boys´room, a girls´room, a salon, a dining room, a kitchen with a pantry and a storage room, a bathing and laundry room, a mais´s room and a large entrance hall. An earth closed used to be located at the end of a gallery or in the mezzanine.
The equipment of bedrooms, where the morning hygiene took place, standardized at the beginning of the 19th century. On a marble desk of the bathroom chest of drawers there were a large and deep basin, a jug with cold water and a smaller jug for warm water, a soap bowl, a long bowl with a lid for toothbrushes, a smaller bowl with a lid for tooth powder and a long bowl for a hair brush.
At the time of earth closets, the necessary equipment of bedrooms included a chamber pot, or a toilet chair and portable bidet. There was also a screen behind which personal hygiene took place.
B.07. Dining room In bourgeois families, the lady of the house strictly distinguished between the working part of the apartment from its social part. The family would dine in the dining room and coffee or tea were served in the salon in the afternoon. The lady of the house would serve the table but the food was brought from the kitchen by the maids. All operations of the house - organisationally, financially, in terms of work and personally – were run by the lady of the house. She had a maid available for harder work (carrying water, wood and coal, washing the floors etc.), an assistant cook for assistance with shopping, diet planning and help with cooking; and a maid for assistance with the every-day cleaning of the entire apartment, with the laundry and serving the table. Organisation of the household and cooking were taught in special schools. Management of the household was a demanding profession in terms of managerial skills and effort, which was close to managing a guest-house or a small hotel.
Naturally, there was an extension table in the middle of the dining room and padded chairs around it. On the sides there were one or more dressers which used to be called “credenza“ back then and later buffet after the French model. Side tables, flower stands and the necessary display case with extraordinary pieces of porcelain and table decorations. Walls were decorated with paintings, mainly with prints of still life, flowers or views of the nature. Privacy of the apartment was protected by crocheted curtains lined with heavy curtains which were drawn at night to keep the warmth inside.
Asian art stored in the Český Krumlov Castle contains a relatively high number of Chinese figures carved out of soapstone. They came from the times of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) and mainly represent figures related to Taoistic and Buddhist iconography.
Goblet with a sealed ruby spiral belonged to Adam Franz of Schwarzenberg. It comes from Janoušek smelt house near Vimperk which was operating on his manor and was one of the most progressive glass works of its time. The time classification results from a well-known event: in 1712 Adam Franz received the Order of the Golden Fleece.
Goblet with a cut portrait of Johann Adolph of Schwarzenberg, Europe, end of the 19th century
B.08. Iconography of the Český Krumlov Castle The Krumlov Castle located on a rock above the river became an inspiration for many artists who depicted it in many time periods and after architectural changes. Oil and watercolour vedute, drawings and prints are from the 16th to 19th century.
In this corridor are displayed copies of the most interesting views of the Castle.
B.09. Treasury of sacred art The main theme of the exposition in this room is the spiritual dimension of life in the Český Krumlov Castle and the surrounding manor, particularly the forms of tangible manifestation of the Baroque Catholic devotion.
The exhibited items can be divided into three groups: